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Cervical biopsy

Cervical biopsy


Biopsy can be done in several ways: simple “punch” biopsy, laser biopsy and loop biopsy.


A cervical biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a small amount of tissue is removed from the cervix, from the place where colposcopic examination has revealed some abnormalities. The intervention has a diagnostic character, and enables us to find about the nature of the cells.


There are several biopsy methods:


  • Punch biopsy- In this method, small pieces of tissue are taken from the cervix with an instrument called “biopsy forceps”. This method is considered outdated by most gynecologists.

  • Laser biopsy

  • Loop biopsy (LEEP,LLETZ): this is the most modern intervention method. The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop to cut out abnormal tissue. The instrument works locally- at the same time excises the tissue and stops the bleeding. This intervention is performed under a local anesthesia and it is painless. 


The harvested cervical tissue is sent to the hysto pathology analysis, so it can be determined whether the sample cells are normal or abnormal (changed). In case of abnormal cells, this analysis also determines the extent of their abnormality. Changed cells are important to find because the cervical cancer can develop in them. The extent of cell abnormality revealed by the HP test is a basic criteria for deciding on the next step in the therapy.


What happens after receiving the results of the HP analysis?

The HP result can be normal (only normal cells are found in the tissue) and pathological.


Three types of pathological test results are possible:


1.Slightly changed cells (LSIL, CIN I) - for the treatment it is enough just to burn the changed and immediately surrounding cells of the cervix. Burning is usually done by a laser or loop (more modern technique) under a local anesthesia, which makes it quite painless.


2.Significantly changed cells (HSIL, CIN II, CIN III, Ca in site): the necessary procedure is cervical conization- an excision of a cone-shaped sample of tissue from the mucous membrane of the cervix. If the HP analysis of this sample confirms the biopsy result, the treatment ends.


3.Invasive cancer cells: The cervical conization needs to be done. The following procedure depends on the HP test results of the removed tissue.

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